Text for the Angina Brochure
(the first part of this file is the text designed to support the medical art in the first two columns of the brochure's "outside")
What is Angina?
Angina Pectoris ("angina") is a recurring pain or discomfort in the chest that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood. It is a common symptom of coronary heart disease, which occurs when vessels that carry blood to the heart become narrowed and blocked due to atherosclerosis (ath a row skle row sis).
Angina feels like a pressing or squeezing pain, usually in the chest under the breast bone, but sometimes in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaws, or back.
[drawing of the heart
in the first column]
Angina is usually triggered by exertion. It is usually relieved within a few minutes by resting or by taking prescribed angina medicine.
What Triggers Angina?
Episodes of angina occur when the heart's need for oxygen increases beyond the oxygen available from the blood nourishing the heart. Physical exertion is the most common trigger for angina. Other triggers can be emotional stress, extreme cold or heat, heavy meals, alcohol, and cigarette smoking.
Does Angina Mean a Heart Attack is about to Happen?
An episode of angina is not a heart attack. Angina pain means that some of the heart muscle in not getting enough blood temporarily--for example, during exercise, when the heart has to work harder. The pain does NOT mean that the heart muscle is suffering irreversible, permanent damage. Episodes of angina seldom cause permanent damage to heart muscle.
In contrast, a heart attack occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is suddenly and permanently cut off. This causes permanent damage to the heart muscle. Typically, the chest pain is more severe, lasts longer, and does not go away with rest or with medicine that was previously effective. However, the symptoms of a heart attack are varied and may be considerably milder.
When someone has a repeating but stable pattern of angina, an episode of angina does not mean that a heart attack is about to happen. In contrast, when the pattern of angina changes--if episodes become more frequent, last longer, or occur without exercise--the risk of heart attack in subsequent days or weeks is much higher.
What Can I Do?
The underlying coronary artery disease that causes angina should be attacked by controlling existing risk factors. These include cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol levels, and excess weight. If the doctor has prescribed a drug to lower blood pressure, it should be taken as directed. Taking these steps reduces the likelihood that coronary artery disease will lead to a heart attack.
[drawing of three blood vessels
at the bottom of the second column]
(the following is the text provided to support the wellness panels)
The American Heart Association reports that people who smoke a pack of cigarettes a day have more than twice the risk of heart attack as those who have never smoked. The National Institute of Health reports that women who smoke are two to six times more likely to suffer a heart attack than nonsmoking woman. And then there's cancer....
There is simply no safe way to smoke. Although low-tar and low-nicotine cigarettes may reduce the lung cancer risk somewhat, they do not lessen the risks of heart diseases or other smoking related diseases. The only safe and healthful course is not to smoke at all. There is nothing easy about giving up cigarettes.
If you can't quit the first time, keep trying. Most smokers "slip" three to five times before they quit for good. But as hard as quitting may be, the results are well worth it. In the first year after stopping smoking, the risk of coronary heart disease drops sharply. It then gradually returns to "normal"--that is, the same risk as someone who never smoked. So no matter what your age, quitting will lessen your chances of developing heart disease.
Sometimes angina can occur after heavy meals. These attacks can be avoided by eating less, and watching the rich foods. But even if your attacks are not triggered by meals, good eating habits are key to treating the coronary artery disease that causes angina
Among the steps that control coronary heart disease: losing excess weight, choosing foods low in salt and sodium, monitoring cholesterol, and limiting alcohol intake.
Being overweight increases your risk of further heart problems, even if there are no other risk factors. The more overweight you are, the higher your level of risk.
Salt and sodium both affect blood pressure, and must be watched. You should consume no more than about 1 teaspoon)of salt a day. This includes ALL salt--that in processed foods or added in cooking or at the table
If you drink alcohol, you should have no more than one drink a day
Extra cholesterol and fat in the diet cause buildup inside blood vessels. So, a high blood cholesterol leads to coronary heart disease.
And, once you have coronary heart disease, an elevated blood cholesterol increases your risk of a future heart attack.
Exercise is still important. Exercise can increase the level of pain-free activity, relieve stress, improve the heart's blood supply, and help control weight.
It is important to work with your doctor to develop an appropriate exercise plan. Many doctors tell angina patients to gradually build up their fitness level--for example, start with a 5-minute walk and increase over weeks or months to 30 minutes or 1 hour. The idea is to gradually increase stamina by working at a steady pace, but avoiding sudden bursts of effort.
If you've been inactive for awhile, start slow, and look for opportunities to become more physically active throughout your day:
Take Your Medications:
Angina is often controlled by drugs. The most commonly prescribed drug for angina is nitroglycerin, which relieves pain by widening blood vessels. This allows more blood to flow to the heart muscle and also decreases the work load of the heart. Nitroglycerin is taken when discomfort occurs or is expected.
Doctors frequently prescribe other drugs, to be taken regularly, that reduce the heart's workload. Beta blockers slow the heart rate and lessen the force of the heart muscle contraction. Calcium channel blockers are also effective in reducing the frequency and severity of angina attacks.
I medication fails to control angina, your doctor may recommend surgery or angioplasty if drugs fail to ease angina or if the risk of heart attack is high.